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CBD Technical Series No. 58: Developing Ecosystem Service Indicators: Experiences and lessons learned from sub-global assessments and other initiatives

CBD Technical Series No. 58: Developing Ecosystem Service Indicators: Experiences and lessons learned from sub-global assessments and other initiatives

This report represents the efforts of a wide group of experts who were challenged with identifying how we might improve our understanding of ecosystem services using indicators. It focuses on the practical details of monitoring and measuring ecosystem services at scales that are relevant for policy and management. Drawing from a range of case studies and a thorough analysis of the literature, it lays out both the challenges to developing reliable indicators and the opportunities for improving and enhancing what we currently know.

Indicator development
Biodiversity Indicator
Ecosystem services

Biodiversity Indicators and the 2010 Biodiversity Target: Outputs, experiences and lessons learnt from the 2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership

Biodiversity Indicators and the 2010 Biodiversity Target: Outputs, experiences and lessons learnt from the 2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership

Th is report summarises the experiences and lessons learnt from the 2010 Biodiversity Indicators Partnership (2010 BIP), as well as providing details of 27 global indicators developed in support of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)’s 2010 Biodiversity Target.

Biodiversity Indicator
Global indicator

Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines

Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines

The target adopted by world leaders of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 was not met but this stimulated a new suite of biodiversity targets for 2020 adopted by the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in October 2010. Indicators will be essential for monitoring progress towards these targets and the CBD will be defining a suite of relevant indicators, building on those developed for the 2010 target. Here we argue that explicitly linked sets of indicators offer a more useful framework than do individual indicators because the former are easier to understand, communicate and interpret to guide policy. A Response-Pressure-State-Benefit framework for structuring and linking indicators facilitates an understanding of the relationships between policy actions, anthropogenic threats, the status of biodiversity and the benefits that people derive from it. Such an approach is appropriate at global, regional, national and local scales but for many systems it is easier to demonstrate causal linkages and use them to aid decision making at national and local scales. We outline examples of linked indicator sets for humid tropical forests and marine fisheries as illustrations of the concept and conclude that much work remains to be done in developing both the indicators and the causal links between them.

Biodiversity Indicator
Global indicator

Tracking Progress Toward the 2010 Biodiversity Target and Beyond

Tracking Progress Toward the 2010 Biodiversity Target and Beyond

In response to global declines in biodiversity, some 190 countries have pledged, under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 ( 1, 2). Moreover, this target has recently been incorporated into the Millennium Development Goals in recognition of the impact of biodiversity loss on human well-being ( 3). Timely information on where and in what ways the target has or has not been met, as well as the likely direction of future trends, depends on a rigorous, relevant, and comprehensive suite of biodiversity indicators with which to track changes over time, to assess the impacts of policy and management responses, and to identify priorities for action. How far have we come in meeting these needs, and is it sufficient?

Linked indicator sets for addressing biodiversity loss

Linked indicator sets for addressing biodiversity loss

The target adopted by world leaders of significantly reducing the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 was not met but this stimulated a new suite of biodiversity targets for 2020 adopted by the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in October 2010. Indicators will be essential for monitoring progress towards these targets and the CBD will be defining a suite of relevant indicators, building on those developed for the 2010 target. Here we argue that explicitly linked sets of indicators offer a more useful framework than do individual indicators because the former are easier to understand, communicate and interpret to guide policy. A Response-Pressure-State-Benefit framework for structuring and linking indicators facilitates an understanding of the relationships between policy actions, anthropogenic threats, the status of biodiversity and the benefits that people derive from it. Such an approach is appropriate at global, regional, national and local scales but for many systems it is easier to demonstrate causal linkages and use them to aid decision making at national and local scales. We outline examples of linked indicator sets for humid tropical forests and marine fisheries as illustrations of the concept and conclude that much work remains to be done in developing both the indicators and the causal links between them.

Biodiversity Indicator
Global indicator

CBD Technical Series 72: Earth Observation for Biodiversity Monitoring

CBD Technical Series 72: Earth Observation for Biodiversity Monitoring

This report shows how earth observation technologies can and should fit into systems for biodiversity monitoring, as well as demonstrates how these approaches could further improve relevant indicators for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. It illustrates a clear track from observations done by remote sensing platforms through Essential Biodiversity Variables to biodiversity indicators and ultimately to the assessment of progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and ultimately in support of evidence-based decision making. There is clearly huge potential for involving the wide range of current and emerging Earth Observation products in biodiversity monitoring. However, it is imperative that a balance is achieved between innovation in new products and the continuity of existing earth observations. A consistent, comparable readily available time series of biodiversity-relevant earth observations, such as long-term land cover change, is a pressing need. If this need were filled it would greatly enhance our ability to keep biodiversity and ecosystems under proper review and take well informed policy decisions.

Global indicator
Data
Remote sensing

Review of the global indicator suite, key global gaps and indicator options for future assessment of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020

Review of the global indicator suite, key global gaps and indicator options for future assessment of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020

The Terms of Reference for the AHTEG on Indicators for the Strategic Plan 2011-2020 (decision XII/1), called on the AHTEG to ‘identify a small set of measureable potential indicators that could be used to monitor progress at the global level towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets with a focus on those that are currently not well addressed and those that may be relevant to the United Nations post-2015 development agenda and sustainable development goals’. This document has been developed to support the AHTEG by identifying gaps in the current suite of indicators brought together under the BIP, building upon the indicative list of indicators adopted in decision XI/3 and reviewing potential indicators to fill these gaps. This document is not a report on the state of the world’s indicators.

Biodiversity Indicator
CBD
Global indicator
Strategic Plan
Gap analysis

Measuring Ecosystem Services: Guidance on Developing Ecosystem Services Indicators

Measuring Ecosystem Services: Guidance on Developing Ecosystem Services Indicators

These guidelines have been produced to support the development of ecosystem service indicators at the national and regional level for uses in reporting, assessments, policy making, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem management, environmental management, development planning and education. The guidance contains four key sections:

Indicator development
Biodiversity Indicator
Global indicator
Regional use
Ecosystem services

A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets

A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets

In 2010, the international community, under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, agreed on 20 biodiversity-related “Aichi Targets” to be achieved within a decade. We provide a comprehensive mid-term assessment of progress toward these global targets using 55 indicator data sets.We projected indicator trends to 2020 using an adaptive statistical framework that incorporated the specific properties of individual time series. On current trajectories, results suggest that despite accelerating policy and management responses to the biodiversity crisis, the impacts of these efforts are unlikely to be reflected in improved trends in the state of biodiversity by 2020. We highlight areas of societal endeavor requiring additional efforts to achieve the Aichi Targets, and provide a baseline against which to assess future progress.

CBD
Global indicator
Strategic Plan

Global Biodiversity Outlook 4

Global Biodiversity Outlook 4

Published almost at the halfway point of the 2011–2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, this fourth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-4) provides a timely report: on progress towards meeting the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets and potential actions to accelerate that progress; on prospects for achieving the 2050 Vision on ‘Living in Harmony with Nature’; and on the importance of biodiversity in meeting broader goals for sustainable human development during this century.

CBD
Global indicator