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Wildlife Picture Index in tropical forest protected areas

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Team logo

Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network

Contact point

Indicator description

The Wildlife Picture Index (WPI) is a biodiversity index that measures community diversity of ~300 species of tropical forest ground dwelling mammals and birds that are captured by camera traps. It is sensitive to changes in the number of species, their relative occurrence and evenness over time. It provides temporal trends for species in tropical forests for which little or no data exists. It is a good measure of protected area effectiveness and extinction risk in tropical forests.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

11

Target 11:

By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

Secondary targets

Target 12:

By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.

Primary target

11

Target 11:

By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

12
11

Related SDGs

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GOAL 6 - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

Target 6.6| Relevant indicator

By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

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GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Target 15.1| Relevant indicator

By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.

Target 15.5| Relevant indicator

Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.

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GOAL 6 - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

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GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

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Other related MEAs and processes

Cites high resolution

CITES

Target 1.4| Relevant indicator

The Appendices correctly reflect the conservation needs of species.

Target 1.6| Relevant indicator

Parties cooperate in managing shared wildlife resources.

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Target 8| Relevant indicator

The conservation status of threatened migratory species has considerably improved throughout their range.

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Chapter 3| Relevant indicator

Status, trends and future dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystems underpinning nature’s benefits to people

Cites high resolution

CITES

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Cites high resolution
Cms logo blue4c
Indicator icon

Themes

Bip policy

Policy & conservation actions

View related indicators >
Bip terrestrial

Terrestrial habitats

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Bip policy
Bip species
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Partners

Team logo

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Indicator description

The Wildlife Picture Index (WPI) is a biodiversity index that measures community diversity of ~300 species of tropical forest ground dwelling mammals and birds that are captured by camera traps. It is sensitive to changes in the number of species, their relative occurrence and evenness over time. It provides temporal trends for species in tropical forests for which little or no data exists. It is a good measure of protected area effectiveness and extinction risk in tropical forests.

Contact point

Graphs / Diagrams

Figure 1. Global Wildlife Picture Index.

Figure 2. WPI data disaggregated by protected area. Bird and mammal diversity is decreasing in nine (60%), increasing in two (13%) and stable in the remaining four (27%).

Current storyline

The current assessment of the Wildlife Picture Index (WPI) includes data for 278 species of tropical forest mammals and birds, sampled at 16 TEAM sites in 15 countries over the last 10 years. In 2016 the index had a median value of 0.88 meaning that on average there has been a decrease of 12% in the diversity of these communities compared to the first year of data in 2007.

Indicator relationship to Aichi Target 11 and 12

The WPI measures the effectiveness of protected areas to conservation an important portion of biodiversity (ground-dwelling medium-to-large mammals and birds). The latest WPI assessment shows that about 60% of protected areas show consistent declines of biodiversity in the last 5-10 years.

Target 12: By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.

Building the WPI involves estimating trends for individual populations. Based on Beaudrot et al. (2016), we estimate that out of 511 populations comprising 244 species of tropical mammals and birds, 22% showed evidence of decline, 17% increased and 22% showed no change (the remaining 39% of populations did not have enough to robustly assess temporal trends). This information can help protected area managers and stakeholders understand which species are declining and why.

Beaudrot et al 2016. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight. PLoS Biol 14(1):e1002357. (See further resources section for link)

Data and methodology

Coverage: Sub-global

Scale: Aggregated from 17 protected areas

Time series available: 2007 - 2016

Last update: 2016

Next planned update: 2017. We are planning to expand the number and scope of data sets included in the Wildlife Picture Index beyond the TEAM data. More information to come in late 2018.

Possible disaggregations: By taxonomic group (e.g. migratory or traded species), by protected area

Methodology: The WPI is derived from primary annual camera trap monitoring data using TEAM standardized monitoring methods (see http://www.teamnetwork.org/protocols/bio/terrestrial-vertebrate). After images are classified by species, a hierarchical model is run to estimate occupancy of all species by year, by protected area with no covariates. This model corrects for detection probability which is estimated as a single parameter with a random effect per species. The posterior distribution of occupancy per species per year is then used to calculate the WPI as the geometric mean of occupancy relative to the initial occupancy of the species (year 1). The confidence intervals of the WPI are naturally propagated from these posteriors.

National use of indicator

Producing this indicator nationally: It would be possible to produce the indicator at the national level if there are at least 5 protected areas in the country that are being concurrently monitored with camera trap data using a comparable methodology to TEAM's. These protected areas would have to be distributed along major environmental gradients present in the country (rainfall, temperature, soil type, soil moisture). For more info see Ahumada et al. 2016 (in further resources section).

Use of the global method and data at the national level: Many countries might have camera trap data that is collected in protected areas that could be used to calculate the WPI at the national level. However, most of these data might not be appropriately processed and ready for analysis. Several global organisations are now working to provide a platform, Wildlife Insights, that will alleviate this problem. The goal of Wildlife Insights is to aggregate, analyse and share camera trap data at local, regional and national scales to better enable conservation. Wildlife Insights will have an operational website in June 2018 and guidelines for countries on how to design and collect WPI ready data will be available later in the year.

Examples of national use: No official examples yet exist, but one for Brazil is in development and will be available in late 2018, early 2019.

Availability of global data for national use: http://www.teamnetwork.org/

Further resources

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Team logo

Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network

Contact point