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Red List Index (species used for food and medicine)

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Benefit

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Benefit

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2000

Coverage

Global

Availability

Not freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Zoological Society of London

Contact point

Key resources

Websites

IUCN Red List Index

Indicator description

Biodiversity provides many different ecosystem services to people, at local to global scales. This version of the RLI is based only on data for birds, mammals and amphibians that are known to be used by people for food or medicine. It shows changes in the aggregate extinction risk of these species over time. The decline in the index indicates that these species are moving ever faster towards extinction owing to a combination of unsustainable use and other pressures, such as habitat loss driven by unsustainable agriculture, logging and commercial and residential development.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

14

Target 14:

By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

Primary target

14

Target 14:

By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

14

Related SDGs

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GOAL 6 - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

Target 6.6| Relevant indicator

By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

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GOAL 9 - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.

Target 9.4| Relevant indicator

By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities.

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GOAL 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Target 12.2| Relevant indicator

By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.

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GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

Target 14.4| Relevant indicator

By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics.

Target 14.7| Relevant indicator

By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism.

Target 14.c| Relevant indicator

Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want.

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GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Target 15.4| Relevant indicator

By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.

Target 15.5| Relevant indicator

Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.

Target 15.7| Relevant indicator

Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.

Target 15.c| Relevant indicator

Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.

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GOAL 6 - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 09

GOAL 9 - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12

GOAL 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

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GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

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E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14
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Other related MEAs and processes

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Target 5| Relevant indicator

Governments, key sectors and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption, keeping the impacts of natural resource use on migratory species well within safe ecological limits to promote the favourable conservation status of migratory species and maintain the quality, integrity, resilience, and connectivity of their habitats and migratory routes.

Target 6| Relevant indicator

Fisheries and hunting have no significant direct or indirect adverse impacts on migratory species, their habitats or their migration routes, and impacts of fisheries and hunting are within safe ecological limits.

Target 7| Relevant indicator

Multiple anthropogenic pressures have been brought to levels that are not detrimental to the conservation of migratory species or to the functioning, integrity, ecological connectivity and resilience of their habitats.

Target 11| Relevant indicator

Migratory species and their habitats which provide important ecosystem services are maintained at or restored to favourable conservation status, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities , and the poor and vulnerable.

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Chapter 2| Official indicator

Status and trends; indirect and direct drivers of change

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Progress towards meeting major international objectives related to biodiversity and ecosystem services

Chapter 4| Official indicator

Plausible futures of nature, nature's benefits to people and their contributions to a good quality of life

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Chapter 2| Official indicator

Nature’s benefits to people and quality of life

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Status, trends and future dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystems underpinning nature’s benefits to people

Chapter 4| Relevant indicator

Direct and indirect drivers of change in the context of different perspectives of quality of life

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

Target 13| Relevant indicator

Enhanced sustainability of key sectors such as water, energy, mining, agriculture, tourism, urban development, infrastructure, industry, forestry, aquaculture and fisheries when they affect wetlands, contributing to biodiversity conservation and human livelihoods

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UNCCD

Expected impact 2.1| Relevant indicator

Land productivity and other ecosystem goods and services in affected areas are enhanced in a sustainable manner contributing to improved livelihoods.

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CMS

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

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Ramsar

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UNCCD

Cms logo blue4c
Indicator icon
Titel logo letters 4c
Indicator icon
Ramsar.logo

Themes

Bip sustainable

Sustainable use of natural resources and land

View related indicators >
Bip species
Bip sustainable

Partners

Birdlife aug2013
Iucn logo en
Nslogocolortagtrans
Kew logo 2015 k
Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Benefit

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Benefit

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2000

Coverage

Global

Availability

Not freely available

Indicator description

Biodiversity provides many different ecosystem services to people, at local to global scales. This version of the RLI is based only on data for birds, mammals and amphibians that are known to be used by people for food or medicine. It shows changes in the aggregate extinction risk of these species over time. The decline in the index indicates that these species are moving ever faster towards extinction owing to a combination of unsustainable use and other pressures, such as habitat loss driven by unsustainable agriculture, logging and commercial and residential development.

Contact point

Graphs / Diagrams

Figure 1. Red List Indices showing the proportion of species expected to remain extant in the near future without additional conservation action for all amphibians, birds and mammals. Source: IUCN & Birdlife International, 2008.

Current storyline

Wild species used for food and medicine are increasingly threatened with extinction, owing to a combination of unsustainable use and other pressures, such as habitat loss driven by unsustainable agriculture, logging and commercial and residential development. About 14% of the world’s birds are thought to be used for food and or medicinal purposes, and 23% are threatened with extinction (compared with 13% of all bird species). Similarly, mammal species used for food and medicines (22% of all known mammal species) are more threatened on average than those not utilised in this way. In contrast, amphibians used for food and medicine appear overall to be less threatened than amphibians not used for these purposes. However, the conservation status of these species is declining more rapidly than that of amphibian species not used for food and medicine.

Individual logos shown are those for Red List Partners who are also BIP partners.

Data and methodology

Coverage:

Global time series (1980 onwards, varying by taxonomic group. Aggregate index from 1993).

Regional/ National time series (time periods variable).

Global baseline (Multiple taxonomic groups have been comprehensively assessed).

Regional/National baseline (National RLIs based on assessments of extinction risk are available for a number of taxa and countries –see http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/publication/red-list-index, while many other countries have completed national red lists but not yet repeated these to produce an RLI: see www.nationalredlist.org. National RLIs for all countries, disaggregated from the global RLI and weighted by the proportion of each species’ distribution occurring within the country, are available in the Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation/login).

Scale: Aggregated from species level data which may be collected nationally, regionally and/or globally.

Time series available: 1980 –2016.

Next planned update: Updates are released annually.

Possible disaggregations: By region, country. This indicator is a disaggregation of the Red List Index.

Methodology: The RLI was initially designed and tested using data on all bird species (Butchart el al 2004) and then extended to amphibians (Butchart et al 2005). The methodology was revised and improved in 2007 (Butchart et al 2007), with methods for aggregating across taxonomic groups and for calculating confidence intervals published in 2010 (Butchart et al 2010). RLIs for additional groups have been added subsequently.

RLIs have been published showing the negative impacts of invasive species (McGeoch et al 2010) and trade (Butchart 2008), and the positive impacts of conservation action (Hoffmann et al 2010) and protected areas (Butchart et al 2012). An RLI to show the impact of a single conservation institution was published by Young et al (2014). The spatial distribution of the RLI was mapped by Rodrigues et al (2014). An RLI for pollinators was published by Regan et al (2015).

For poorly known, species-rich groups (e.g. insects, fungi, plants, etc), a sampled approach to Red Listing has been developed (Baillie et al 2008; see also http://www.kew.org/science-research-data/directory/projects/SampledRedListIndexP.htm). Once the sample of species in these groups are reassessed, RLIs for will be calculated.

National use of indicator

National RLIs can be calculated either by disaggregating the global indices, or by repeatedly assessing extinction risk at the national scale (Bubb et al 2009). National indices based on national assessments of extinction risk are available for an increasing number of taxa and countries (see http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/publication/red-list-index) while many other countries have completed national red lists (see www.nationalredlist.org), but not yet repeated these to produce an RLI. Such national RLIs may be more sensitive than globally downscaled RLIs. However, they come with the disadvantage that their trends may be driven by changes in status of species with a trivial proportion of their global population within a given country (Rodrigues et al. 2014). This is because national RLIs do not take into account the fact that different countries have different levels of global responsibility towards the conservation of the species they harbour. For example, the return of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus to Denmark as a breeding species contributed to this country’s improving national RLI, but was inconsequential to the global RLI, because Denmark holds a tiny fraction of this widespread species’ population. In contrast, an improvement in the conservation status of Albert’s Lyrebird Menura alberti in Australia (from Vulnerable to Near Threatened) is globally significant, because this species is a national endemic. Thus, a country can have an improving national index while making a negative contribution to the global RLI, if improvements concern mainly species that are marginally represented within the country and deteriorations species for which the country is highly responsible (Rodrigues et al. 2014). To overcome this issue, national RLIs (disaggregated from the global RLI for all birds, mammals, amphibians, cycads and corals) weighted by the proportion of each species’ global distribution within the country have been calculated for all countries worldwide (UNSD 2016; see the Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation/login).

More information about producing national RLIs can be found in the publication, IUCN Red List Index – Guidance for National and Regional Use available from: http://intranet.iucn.org/webfiles/doc/SpeciesProg/RLI_Guidelines_Final_4march09.pdf.

Further resources

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Benefit

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Benefit

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2000

Coverage

Global

Availability

Not freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Zoological Society of London

Contact point

Key resources

Websites

IUCN Red List Index