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Red List Index (pollinating species)

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2012

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

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IUCN

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NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

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Zoological Society of London

Contact point

Indicator description

Biodiversity provides many different ecosystem services to people, at local to global scales. Most services are difficult to link to individual species but pollination is an exception, with multiple studies showing that exclusion of particular groups of pollinator species leads to reduction in crop productivity and value. This version of the RLI is based only on data for birds and mammals that are known or inferred to be pollinators and shows changes in the aggregate extinction risk of pollinator species over time. The decline in the Red List Index for pollinators indicates that ecosystems supporting them are not currently being adequately safeguarded.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

14

Target 14:

By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

Primary target

14

Target 14:

By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

14

Related SDGs

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 02

GOAL 2 - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

Target 2.4| Relevant indicator

By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Target 15.4| Relevant indicator

By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 02

GOAL 2 - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 02
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

Other related MEAs and processes

Cites high resolution

CITES

Target 1.6| Relevant indicator

Parties cooperate in managing shared wildlife resources.

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CMS

Target 2| Relevant indicator

Multiple values of migratory species and their habitats have been integrated into international, national, and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes, and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.

Target 11| Relevant indicator

Migratory species and their habitats which provide important ecosystem services are maintained at or restored to favourable conservation status, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities , and the poor and vulnerable.

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Progress towards meeting major international objectives related to biodiversity and ecosystem services

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Chapter 2| Official indicator

Nature’s benefits to people and quality of life

Chapter 5| Official indicator

Integrated and cross-scale analysis of interactions of the natural world and human society

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Ramsar

Target 11| Relevant indicator

Wetland functions, services and benefits are widely demonstrated, documented and disseminated.

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UNCCD

Expected impact 2.1| Relevant indicator

Land productivity and other ecosystem goods and services in affected areas are enhanced in a sustainable manner contributing to improved livelihoods.

Cites high resolution

CITES

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

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Ramsar

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UNCCD

Cites high resolution
Cms logo blue4c
Titel logo letters 4c
Indicator icon
Indicator icon
Ramsar.logo

Themes

Bip sustainable

Sustainable use of natural resources and land

View related indicators >
Bip species
Bip sustainable

Partners

Birdlife aug2013
Iucn logo en
Nslogocolortagtrans
Kew logo 2015 k
Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2012

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Indicator description

Biodiversity provides many different ecosystem services to people, at local to global scales. Most services are difficult to link to individual species but pollination is an exception, with multiple studies showing that exclusion of particular groups of pollinator species leads to reduction in crop productivity and value. This version of the RLI is based only on data for birds and mammals that are known or inferred to be pollinators and shows changes in the aggregate extinction risk of pollinator species over time. The decline in the Red List Index for pollinators indicates that ecosystems supporting them are not currently being adequately safeguarded.

Contact point

Graphs / Diagrams

Figure 1: Red List Index for pollinators (880 birds and 308 mammal species) compared with non-pollinators (8988 birds and 4192 mammal species). Source: BirdLife International and IUCN, 2013.

Current storyline

The Red List Index (RLI) shows changes in the aggregate extinction risk of sets of species over time. It is an index of rate at which species move through categories on the IUCN Red List towards or away from extinction. The Red List Index can be disaggregated to show trends in survival probability for subsets of species that are known to be pollinators. It is based on data from the IUCN Red List – the number of species in each Red List category of extinction risk, and the number moving categories between assessments owing to genuine improvement or deterioration in status.

Mammals and birds form only a minority of all pollinators, but data for the many pollinator species among insect groups are currently not available (though an assessment for bumblebees is currently in preparation). It is likely, however, that they too are in decline.

The Red List Index for pollinator birds (e.g. sunbirds and New World warblers) and mammals (e.g. some bats and rodents) shows declining trends, indicating these species are moving faster towards extinction. However, overall they are less threatened than non-pollinator species (for which the Red List Index has lower values), perhaps reflecting the fact that average body size is larger among non-pollinators, and that large-bodied species tend to be more threatened.

A Red List Index value of 1.0 equates to all species being categorized as Least Concern, and hence that none are expected to go extinct in the near future. A Red List Index value of zero indicates that all species have gone extinct. A downwards trend in the graph line (i.e. decreasing Red List Index values) means that the expected rate of species extinctions is increasing i.e. that the rate of biodiversity loss is increasing. Aichi Target 14 calls for “ecosystems that provide essential services” to be “restored and safeguarded”. The decline in the Red List Index for pollinators indicates that ecosystems supporting them are not currently being adequately safeguarded.

The indicator is developed by IUCN and BirdLife International.

Underlying data come from the IUCN Red List, which is developed by IUCN and the Red List Partnership (Arizona State University, BirdLife International, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Conservation International, NatureServe, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Sapienza University of Rome, Texas A&M University, and The Zoological Society of London.

Sampled Red List assessments for plants, which will in due course feed into the RLI, are coordinated by Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Individual logos shown are those for Red List Partners who are also BIP partners.

Data and methodology

Coverage:

Global time series (1980 onwards, varying by taxonomic group. Aggregate index from 1993).

Regional/ National time series (time periods variable).

Global baseline (Multiple taxonomic groups have been comprehensively assessed).

Regional/National baseline (National RLIs based on assessments of extinction risk are available for a number of taxa and countries –see http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/publication/red-list-index, while many other countries have completed national red lists but not yet repeated these to produce an RLI: see www.nationalredlist.org. National RLIs for all countries, disaggregated from the global RLI and weighted by the proportion of each species’ distribution occurring within the country, are available in the Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation/login).

Scale: Aggregated from species level data which may be collected nationally, regionally and/or globally.

Time series available: 1980 –2016.

Next planned update: Updates are released annually.

Possible disaggregations: This indicator is a disaggregation of the Red List Index.

Methodology: The RLI is well-established as a biodiversity indicator. This version has been recently developed and published in Regan et al. 2015.

National use of indicator

This version of the RLI is based only on data for birds and mammals that are known or inferred to be pollinators. As this represents a more restricted subset of the global RLI dataset, in many countries there may be insufficient data for a meaningful index to be disaggregated at the national scale. In such cases it is better to calculate the index based on repeated assessments of national extinction risk based on national Red Lists, if these are available. Ideally these should also include assessments for pollinating insects, which should be included in the national RLI for pollinators.

More information about producing national RLIs can be found in the publication, IUCN Red List Index – Guidance for National and Regional Use available from: http://intranet.iucn.org/webfiles/doc/SpeciesProg/RLI_Guidelines_Final_4march09.pdf.

Further resources

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

State

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2012

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Zoological Society of London

Contact point