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Red List Index (reef-building corals)

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Not freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

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Zoological Society of London

Contact point

Indicator description

This version of the RLI is based only on data for reef-building coral species, and shows changes in the aggregate extinction risk of these species over time. The decline in the Red List Index for reef-building corals indicates that ecosystems supporting them are not currently being adequately safeguarded. There are a multitude of possible reasons for this decline, including climate change and ocean acidification, as well as unsustainable fishing practices.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

10

Target 10:

By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

Primary target

10

Target 10:

By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

10

Related SDGs

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GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

Target 14.2| Relevant indicator

By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans.

Target 14.3| Relevant indicator

Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

Other related MEAs and processes

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CITES

Target 1.6| Relevant indicator

Parties cooperate in managing shared wildlife resources.

Target 1.7| Relevant indicator

Parties are enforcing the Convention to reduce illegal wildlife trade.

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CMS

Target 11| Relevant indicator

Migratory species and their habitats which provide important ecosystem services are maintained at or restored to favourable conservation status, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities , and the poor and vulnerable.

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IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Chapter 2| Official indicator

Status and trends; indirect and direct drivers of change

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Progress towards meeting major international objectives related to biodiversity and ecosystem services

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Chapter 3| Relevant indicator

Status, trends and future dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystems underpinning nature’s benefits to people

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Status, trends and future dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystems underpinning nature’s benefits to people

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Ramsar

Target 5| Relevant indicator

The ecological character of Ramsar Sites is maintained or restored, through effective planning and integrated management

Target 12| Relevant indicator

Restoration is in progress in degraded wetlands, with priority to wetlands that are relevant for biodiversity conservation, disaster risk reduction, livelihoods and/or climate change mitigation and adaptation

Cites high resolution

CITES

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

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Ramsar

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Indicator icon
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Themes

Marine

Marine & freshwater habitats

View related indicators >
Marine
Bip species

Partners

Birdlife aug2013
Iucn logo en
Nslogocolortagtrans
Kew logo 2015 k
Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Not freely available

Indicator description

This version of the RLI is based only on data for reef-building coral species, and shows changes in the aggregate extinction risk of these species over time. The decline in the Red List Index for reef-building corals indicates that ecosystems supporting them are not currently being adequately safeguarded. There are a multitude of possible reasons for this decline, including climate change and ocean acidification, as well as unsustainable fishing practices.

Contact point

Graphs / Diagrams

Figure 1: Red List Index for the world’s corals (1998-2008). Source: BirdLife International and IUCN (2016).

Current storyline

The Red List Index (RLI) shows changes in the aggregate extinction risk of sets of species over time. It is an index of the rate at which species move through categories on the IUCN Red List towards or away from extinction. It is calculated from the number of species in each Red List category (ranging from Least Concern to Extinct), and the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status (category changes owing to improved knowledge or revised taxonomy are excluded).

The decline in the RLI for reef-building corals shows that they are moving ever-faster towards extinction. Climate change-driven increases in sea temperatures and acidity, resulting in coral-bleaching events, are driving these trends.

Individual logos shown are those for Red List Partners who are also BIP partners.

Data and methodology

Coverage:

Global time series 1980 onwards, varying by taxonomic group. Aggregate index from 1993.

Regional/ National time series (time periods variable).

Scale: Aggregated from species level data which may be collected nationally, regionally and/or globally.

Time series available: 1980 –2016.

Next planned update: Updates are released annually.

Possible disaggregations: by region, country; This indicator is a disaggregation of the Red List Index.

Methodology: This version of the RLI shows trends in the status of reef-building corals only.

The RLI was initially designed and tested using data on all bird species (Butchart el al., 2004) and then extended to amphibians (Butchart et al., 2005). The methodology was revised and improved in 2007 (Butchart et al., 2007), with methods for aggregating across taxonomic groups and for calculating confidence intervals published in 2010 (Butchart et al., 2010). RLIs for additional groups have been added subsequently.

RLIs have been published showing the negative impacts of invasive species (McGeoch et al., 2010) and trade (Butchart 2008), and the positive impacts of conservation action (Hoffmann et al., 2010) and protected areas (Butchart et al., 2012). An RLI to show the impact of a single conservation institution was published by Young et al. (2014). The spatial distribution of the RLI was mapped by Rodrigues et al. (2014). An RLI for pollinators was published by Regan et al., (2015).

For poorly known, species-rich groups (e.g. insects, fungi, plants, etc), a sampled approach to Red Listing has been developed (Baillie et al., 2008; see also http://www.kew.org/science-research-data/directory/projects/SampledRedListIndexP.htm). Once the sample of species in these groups are reassessed, RLIs for will be calculated.

National use of indicator

National RLIs can be calculated either by disaggregating the global indices, or by repeatedly assessing extinction risk at the national scale (Bubb et al., 2009). Examples of both approaches have been published. National indices based on national assessments of extinction risk are available for an increasing number of taxa and countries (see http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/publication/red-list-index) while many other countries have completed national red lists (see www.nationalredlist.org), but not yet repeated these to produce an RLI.

Such national RLIs may be more sensitive than globally downscaled RLIs. However, they come with the disadvantage that their trends may be driven by changes in status of species with a trivial proportion of their global population within a given country (Rodrigues et al., 2014). This is because national RLIs do not take into account the fact that different countries have different levels of global responsibility towards the conservation of the species they harbour.

For example, the return of the Osprey Pandion haliaetus to Denmark as a breeding species contributed to this country’s improving national RLI, but was inconsequential to the global RLI, because Denmark holds a tiny fraction of this widespread species’ population. In contrast, an improvement in the conservation status of Albert’s Lyrebird (Menura alberti) in Australia (from Vulnerable to Near Threatened) is globally significant, because this species is a national endemic.

Thus, a country can have an improving national index while making a negative contribution to the global RLI, if improvements concern mainly species that are marginally represented within the country and deteriorations species for which the country is highly responsible (Rodrigues et al., 2014). To overcome this issue, national RLIs (disaggregated from the global RLI for all birds, mammals, amphibians, cycads and corals) weighted by the proportion of each species’ global distribution within the country have been calculated for all countries worldwide (UNSD 2016; see the Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation/login).

More information about producing national RLIs can be found in the publication, IUCN Red List Index – Guidance for National and Regional Use available from: http://intranet.iucn.org/webfiles/doc/SpeciesProg/RLI_Guidelines_Final_4march09.pdf.

Further resources

No further resources are available

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Not freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Zoological Society of London

Contact point