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Red List Index (impacts of utilisation)

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

No

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

No

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2008

Coverage

Global

Availability

Not freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

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IUCN

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NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

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Zoological Society of London

Contact point

Indicator description

People depend upon biodiversity and use wildlife in a variety of ways. For example birds, mammals and amphibians are hunted, trapped and collected for food, sport, pets, medicine, materials (e.g. fur and feathers) and other purposes.

The RLI (impacts of utilisation) shows trends in the status of all mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide driven only by the negative impacts of utilisation or the positive impacts of measures to control or manage utilisation sustainability.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

4

Target 4:

By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

Primary target

4

Target 4:

By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

4

Related SDGs

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 08

GOAL 8 - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Target 8.4| Relevant indicator

Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12

GOAL 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Target 12.2| Relevant indicator

By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.

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GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

Target 14.3| Relevant indicator

Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Target 15.7| Relevant indicator

Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 08

GOAL 8 - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12

GOAL 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

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E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

Other related MEAs and processes

Cites high resolution

CITES

Target 1.4| Relevant indicator

The Appendices correctly reflect the conservation needs of species.

Target 1.5| Relevant indicator

Best available scientific information is the basis for non-detriment findings.

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Target 8| Relevant indicator

The conservation status of threatened migratory species has considerably improved throughout their range.

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Progress towards meeting major international objectives related to biodiversity and ecosystem services

Chapter 5| Official indicator

Scenarios and pathways towards a sustainable future

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Chapter 2| Official indicator

Nature’s benefits to people and quality of life

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Status, trends and future dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystems underpinning nature’s benefits to people

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

Target 8| Relevant indicator

National wetland inventories have been either initiated, completed or updated and disseminated and used for promoting the conservation and effective management of all wetlands.

Target 9| Relevant indicator

The wise use of wetlands is strengthened through integrated resource management at the appropriate scale, inter alia, within a river basin or along a coastal zone.

Cites high resolution

CITES

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

Cites high resolution
Cms logo blue4c
Indicator icon
Indicator icon
Ramsar.logo

Themes

Bip sustainable

Sustainable use of natural resources and land

View related indicators >
Bip species
Bip sustainable

Partners

Birdlife aug2013
Iucn logo en
Nslogocolortagtrans
Kew logo 2015 k
Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

No

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

No

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2008

Coverage

Global

Availability

Not freely available

Indicator description

People depend upon biodiversity and use wildlife in a variety of ways. For example birds, mammals and amphibians are hunted, trapped and collected for food, sport, pets, medicine, materials (e.g. fur and feathers) and other purposes.

The RLI (impacts of utilisation) shows trends in the status of all mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide driven only by the negative impacts of utilisation or the positive impacts of measures to control or manage utilisation sustainability.

Contact point

Graphs / Diagrams

Figure 1. Red List Index for mammals (1980-2004), birds (1988-2012), and amphibians (1996-2008). Source: BirdLife International and IUCN (2016).

Current storyline

Many species of birds, mammals and amphibians are used by people, for food, medicine, pets, sport etc.

For example, over 40% of the world’s bird species are utilized in one way or another. In many cases, this utilisation is at levels that are unsustainable, leading to declines in population and range, and increases in extinction risk. The RLI shows trends in the status of all mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide driven only by the negative impacts of utilisation or the positive impacts of measures to control or manage utilisation sustainability. It is based on data from the IUCN Red List, specifically the number of species in each Red List category of extinction risk, and the number moving categories between assessments owing to genuine improvement or deterioration in status driven by impacts utilisation or its control. All other changes are excluded, whether from improved knowledge, or genuine impacts of other threats or their control.

The index show that the extinction risk of these species groups is increasing over time. Analyses of the drivers of these shifts in status show that utilisation is having a net negative impact. Although some threatened species have improved in status (as a result of successful control or management of utilisation), more have been uplisted to higher categories of threat owing to the negative impacts of unsustainable utilisation.

A related indicator shows RLI trends for CITES-listed birds. This shows that they are more threatened on average than all species (i.e. their RLI values are lower), which is a direct consequence of the criteria for listing on CITES appendices. Among internationally traded species, those listed on CITES Appendix I or II are declining faster than those that are not-CITES listed. However, in relation to Target 4, it is important to note that (a) international trade is just one subset of utilisation: many species are utilised without trade; (b) for those species that are traded, most trade happens at local or national scales, so this has a greater impacts on status than international trade; and (c) most changes in status of species reflected in the RLI are driven by factors other than utilisation (e.g. unsustainable agriculture, invasive alien species, pollution etc), and hence the trends say little about the sustainability of utilisation, which is the focus of Target 4.

The Red List Index for birds, mammals and amphibians showing trends driven by utilisation reveals the trends in the overall extinction risk of species as driven by the balance between unsustainable levels of utilisation (leading to population declines) and successful measures to control or manage utilisation (leading to population increases or stable trends). A decreasing Red List Index (RLI) means that the rate of extinction driven by utilisation is expected to increase, whereas a flat RLI means that the rate of extinctions driven by utilisation is expected to remain relatively unchanged. Hence, the decline in RLI shown between 1980 and 2012 indicates that overall levels of utilisation are unsustainable. Many species are now threatened with extinction owing to over-exploitation. It is likely that these results will be mirrored for other wildlife groups once data become available.

The indicator is developed by IUCN and BirdLife International.

Underlying data come from the IUCN Red List, which is developed by IUCN and the Red List Partnership (Arizona State University, BirdLife International, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Conservation International, NatureServe, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Sapienza University of Rome, Texas A&M University, and The Zoological Society of London.

Sampled Red List assessments for plants, which will in due course feed into the RLI, are coordinated by Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Individual logos shown are those for Red List Partners who are also BIP partners.

Data and methodology

Coverage:

Global time series (1980 onwards, varying by taxonomic group. Aggregate index from 1993).

Regional/ National time series (time periods variable).

Global baseline (Multiple taxonomic groups have been comprehensively assessed).

Regional/National baseline (National RLIs based on assessments of extinction risk are available for a number of taxa and countries –see http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/publication/red-list-index, while many other countries have completed national red lists but not yet repeated these to produce an RLI: see www.nationalredlist.org. National RLIs for all countries, disaggregated from the global RLI and weighted by the proportion of each species’ distribution occurring within the country, are available in the Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation/login).

Scale: Aggregated from species level data which may be collected nationally, regionally and/or globally.

Time series available: 1980 –2016.

Next planned update: Updates are released annually.

Possible disaggregations: This indicator is a disaggregation of the Red List Index.

Methodology: The RLI was initially designed and tested using data on all bird species (Butchart el al 2004) and then extended to amphibians (Butchart et al 2005). The methodology was revised and improved in 2007 (Butchart et al 2007), with methods for aggregating across taxonomic groups and for calculating confidence intervals published in 2010 (Butchart et al 2010). RLIs for additional groups have been added subsequently.

RLIs have been published showing the negative impacts of invasive species (McGeoch et al 2010) and trade (Butchart 2008), and the positive impacts of conservation action (Hoffmann et al 2010) and protected areas (Butchart et al 2012). An RLI to show the impact of a single conservation institution was published by Young et al (2014). The spatial distribution of the RLI was mapped by Rodrigues et al (2014). An RLI for pollinators was published by Regan et al (2015).

For poorly known, species-rich groups (e.g. insects, fungi, plants, etc), a sampled approach to Red Listing has been developed (Baillie et al 2008; see also http://www.kew.org/science-research-data/directory/projects/SampledRedListIndexP.htm). Once the sample of species in these groups are reassessed, RLIs for will be calculated.

National use of indicator

National RLIs can be calculated either by disaggregating the global indices, or by repeatedly assessing extinction risk at the national scale. Examples of both approaches have been published. Many countries have compiled national red lists which form the basis of the latter approach (see www.nationalredlist.org), and an increasing number have done this twice or more using consistent methods, allowing national RLIs to be produced. As they increasingly do so, however, many more national RLIs will become available which can be disaggregated to show trends driven by utilisation or its control.

More information about producing national RLIs can be found in the publication, IUCN Red List Index – Guidance for National and Regional Use available from: http://intranet.iucn.org/webfiles/doc/SpeciesProg/RLI_Guidelines_Final_4march09.pdf.

Further resources

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

No

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

No

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2008

Coverage

Global

Availability

Not freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Zoological Society of London

Contact point