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Red List Index (impacts of utilisation)

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2017

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

Iucn logo en

IUCN

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Zoological Society of London

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Contact point

Indicator description

People depend upon biodiversity and use wildlife in a variety of ways. For example birds, mammals and amphibians are hunted, trapped and collected for food, sport, pets, medicine, materials (e.g. fur and feathers) and other purposes.

The Red List Index (impacts of utilisation) shows trends in the status of all mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide driven only by the negative impacts of utilisation or the positive impacts of measures to control or manage utilisation sustainability.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

4

Target 4:

By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

Primary target

4

Target 4:

By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

4

Related SDGs

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 08

GOAL 8 - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Target 8.4| Relevant indicator

Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12

GOAL 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Target 12.2| Relevant indicator

By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

Target 14.4| Relevant indicator

By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Target 15.7| Relevant indicator

Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 08

GOAL 8 - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12

GOAL 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

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E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

Other related MEAs and processes

Cites high resolution

CITES

Target 1.4| Relevant indicator

The Appendices correctly reflect the conservation needs of species.

Target 1.5| Relevant indicator

Best available scientific information is the basis for non-detriment findings.

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Target 8| Relevant indicator

The conservation status of threatened migratory species has considerably improved throughout their range.

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Progress towards meeting major international objectives related to biodiversity and ecosystem services

Chapter 5| Official indicator

Scenarios and pathways towards a sustainable future

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Chapter 2| Official indicator

Nature’s benefits to people and quality of life

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Status, trends and future dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystems underpinning nature’s benefits to people

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

Target 8| Relevant indicator

National wetland inventories have been either initiated, completed or updated and disseminated and used for promoting the conservation and effective management of all wetlands.

Target 9| Relevant indicator

The wise use of wetlands is strengthened through integrated resource management at the appropriate scale, inter alia, within a river basin or along a coastal zone.

Cites high resolution

CITES

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

Cites high resolution
Cms logo blue4c
Indicator icon
Indicator icon
Ramsar.logo

Themes

Bip sustainable

Sustainable use of natural resources and land

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Bip species
Bip sustainable

Partners

Nslogocolortagtrans
Kew logo 2015 k
Iucn logo en
Zsl logo stacked cmyk
Birdlife aug2013

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2017

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Indicator description

People depend upon biodiversity and use wildlife in a variety of ways. For example birds, mammals and amphibians are hunted, trapped and collected for food, sport, pets, medicine, materials (e.g. fur and feathers) and other purposes.

The Red List Index (impacts of utilisation) shows trends in the status of all mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide driven only by the negative impacts of utilisation or the positive impacts of measures to control or manage utilisation sustainability.

Contact point

Graphs / Diagrams

Figure. Red List Index (impacts of utilisation)

Current storyline

Many species of birds, mammals and amphibians are used by people, for food, medicine, pets, sport etc.

For example, over 40% of the world’s bird species are utilized in one way or another. In many cases, this utilisation is at levels that are unsustainable, leading to declines in population and range, and increases in extinction risk. This version of the RLI shows trends in the status of all mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide driven only by the negative impacts of utilisation or the positive impacts of measures to control or manage utilisation sustainability. It is based on data from the IUCN Red List, specifically the number of species in each Red List category of extinction risk, and the number moving categories between assessments owing to genuine improvement or deterioration in status driven by impacts utilisation or its control. All other changes are excluded, whether from improved knowledge, or genuine impacts of other threats or their control.

The index show that the extinction risk of these species groups is increasing over time. Analyses of the drivers of these shifts in status show that utilisation is having a net negative impact. Although some threatened species have improved in status (as a result of successful control or management of utilisation), more have been uplisted to higher categories of threat owing to the negative impacts of unsustainable utilisation.

A related indicator shows RLI trends for CITES-listed birds. This shows that they are more threatened on average than all species (i.e. their RLI values are lower), which is a direct consequence of the criteria for listing on CITES appendices. Among internationally traded species, those listed on CITES Appendix I or II are declining faster than those that are not-CITES listed. However, in relation to Target 4, it is important to note that (a) international trade is just one subset of utilisation: many species are utilised without trade; (b) for those species that are traded, most trade happens at local or national scales, so this has a greater impacts on status than international trade; and (c) most changes in status of species reflected in the RLI are driven by factors other than utilisation (e.g. unsustainable agriculture, invasive alien species, pollution etc), and hence the trends say little about the sustainability of utilisation, which is the focus of Target 4.

The Red List Index (impacts of utilisation) reveals the trends in the overall extinction risk of species as driven by the balance between unsustainable levels of utilisation (leading to population declines) and successful measures to control or manage utilisation (leading to population increases or stable trends). A decreasing Red List Index (RLI) means that the rate of extinction driven by utilisation is expected to increase, whereas a flat RLI means that the rate of extinctions driven by utilisation is expected to remain relatively unchanged. Hence, the decline in RLI shown between 1980 and 2012 indicates that overall levels of utilisation are unsustainable. Many species are now threatened with extinction owing to over-exploitation. It is likely that these results will be mirrored for other wildlife groups once data become available.

The indicator is developed by IUCN and BirdLife International.

Underlying data come from the IUCN Red List, which is developed by IUCN and the Red List Partnership (Arizona State University, BirdLife International, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Conservation International, NatureServe, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Sapienza University of Rome, Texas A&M University, and The Zoological Society of London).

Sampled Red List assessments for plants, which will in due course feed into the RLI, are coordinated by Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Individual logos shown are those for Red List Partners who are also BIP partners.

Data and methodology

Coverage: Global time series (1980 onwards, varying by taxonomic group. Aggregate index from 1993).

Regional/ National time series (time periods variable).

Global baseline (Multiple taxonomic groups have been comprehensively assessed).

Regional/National baseline (National RLIs based on assessments of extinction risk are available for a number of taxa and countries –see http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/publication/red-list-index, while many other countries have completed national red lists but not yet repeated these to produce an RLI: see www.nationalredlist.org. National RLIs for all countries, disaggregated from the global RLI and weighted by the proportion of each species’ distribution occurring within the country, are available in the Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation).

Scale: Aggregated from species level data which may be collected nationally, regionally and/or globally.

Time series available: 1980 –2016.

Next planned update: Updates are released annually.

Possible disaggregations: This indicator is a disaggregation of the Red List Index.

Methodology: The RLI was initially designed and tested using data on all bird species (Butchart el al 2004) and then extended to amphibians (Butchart et al 2005). The methodology was revised and improved in 2007 (Butchart et al 2007), with methods for aggregating across taxonomic groups and for calculating confidence intervals published in 2010 (Butchart et al 2010). RLIs for additional groups have been added subsequently.

RLIs have been published showing the negative impacts of invasive species (McGeoch et al 2010) and trade (Butchart 2008), and the positive impacts of conservation action (Hoffmann et al 2010) and protected areas (Butchart et al 2012). An RLI to show the impact of a single conservation institution was published by Young et al (2014). The spatial distribution of the RLI was mapped by Rodrigues et al (2014). An RLI for pollinators was published by Regan et al (2015).

For poorly known, species-rich groups (e.g. insects, fungi, plants, etc), a sampled approach to Red Listing has been developed (Baillie et al 2008). Once the sample of species in these groups are reassessed, RLIs for will be calculated.

National use of indicator

Producing this indicator nationally: National Red List Indices (RLIs) can be calculated either by:

(1) Repeatedly assessing extinction risk at the national scale: examples of this approach have been published for an increasing number of countries and taxa.

(2) Disaggregating the global RLI: national RLIs are produced for all countries and updated each year for the UN SDGs.

These two approaches are described below.

More information about producing national RLIs can be found in Bubb et al. (2009), IUCN Red List Index – Guidance for National and Regional Use available here.

Use at the national level & examples of national use:

(1) RLIs based on repeatedly assessing extinction risk at the national scale.

National indices based on national assessments of extinction risk are available for an increasing number of taxa and countries. Many other countries have completed national red lists but not yet repeated these to produce an RLI. There are at least 515 national Red Lists for various taxonomic groups, covering at least 122 countries, of which Red Lists for 43 countries are available online at http://www.nationalredlist.org. Not all of these use the Guidelines for application of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria at regional and national scales, so results may not be comparable between countries.

Such national RLIs may be more sensitive than globally downscaled RLIs. However, they come with the disadvantage that their trends may be driven by changes in status of species with a trivial proportion of their global population within a given country (Rodrigues et al., 2014). This is because national RLIs do not take into account the fact that different countries have different levels of global responsibility towards the conservation of the species they harbour.

For example, the return of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) to Denmark as a breeding species contributed to this country’s improving national RLI, but was inconsequential to the global RLI, because Denmark holds a tiny fraction of this widespread species’ population. In contrast, an improvement in the conservation status of Albert’s Lyrebird (Menura alberti) in Australia (from Vulnerable to Near Threatened) is globally significant, because this species is a national endemic. Thus, a country can have an improving national index while making a negative contribution to the global RLI, if improvements concern mainly species that are marginally represented within the country and deterioration in species for which the country is highly responsible (Rodrigues et al., 2014).

(2) RLIs based on disaggregating the global RLI.

To overcome the issue that national RLIs based on national red lists may be driven by changes in status of species with a trivial proportion of their global population within a given country, national RLIs (disaggregated from the global RLI for all birds, mammals, amphibians, cycads and corals) weighted by the proportion of each species’ global distribution within the country have been calculated for all countries worldwide, and this is one of the official adopted SDG indicators (UNSD 2016, 2017). The methods for this approach are described at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/metadata/files/Metadata-15-05-01.pdf

The data for each country are available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/database/?indicator=15.5.1 (data).

The graphs for each country are available on the IBAT Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org.

Availability of global data for national use: National RLIs available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/database/?indicator=15.5.1 (data) and on the IBAT country profiles.

Contact person for supporting national use: stuart.butchart@birdlife.org or Thomas.brooks@iucn.org

Red List Index (impacts of utilisation): Subsets of the Red List Index can be used to track trends in the impacts of different drivers (utilisation, fisheries, pollution, invasive alien species etc), or for different subsets of species of particular policy relevance (e.g. species used for food or medicine, pollinating species, reef-building corals etc). In principle, national versions of these indicators can be produced following the same approaches above.

For the Red List Index (impacts of utilisation), national disaggregations of the global indicator haven’t been produced for all countries because many of these would have too few species driving the trends to produce a reliable indicator. As the total number of species included in the global RLI increases, and therefore the number whose status over time changes owing to the impacts of utilisation grows, it would be possible to produce national disaggregations of the global RLI showing impacts of utilisation. The alternative approach, based on repeatedly assessing extinction risk at the national scale, can be applied in those countries that have assessed national extinction risk at least twice using comparable methods (preferably following the guidelines for regional application of the IUCN Red List criteria). Including only those category changes resulting from the impacts of utilisation or its control/management would allow production of a national Red List Index showing impacts of utilisation.

Further resources

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2017

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Zoological Society of London

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Contact point