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Red List Index (impacts of pollution)

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2017

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Zoological Society of London

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Contact point

Key resources

Websites

IUCN Red List Index

Indicator description

This version of the RLI shows trends in the status of all mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide driven only by the negative impacts of pollution or the positive impacts of measures to control pollution.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

8

Target 8:

By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.

Primary target

8

Target 8:

By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.

8

Related SDGs

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

Target 14.1| Relevant indicator

By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

Other related MEAs and processes

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Target 7| Relevant indicator

Multiple anthropogenic pressures have been brought to levels that are not detrimental to the conservation of migratory species or to the functioning, integrity, ecological connectivity and resilience of their habitats.

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Chapter 2| Official indicator

Status and trends; indirect and direct drivers of change

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Progress towards meeting major international objectives related to biodiversity and ecosystem services

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Status, trends and future dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystems underpinning nature’s benefits to people

Chapter 4| Official indicator

Direct and indirect drivers of change in the context of different perspectives of quality of life

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

Target 2| Relevant indicator

Water use respects wetland ecosystem needs for them to fulfil their functions and provide services at the appropriate scale inter alia at the basin level or along a coastal zone.

Target 13| Relevant indicator

Enhanced sustainability of key sectors such as water, energy, mining, agriculture, tourism, urban development, infrastructure, industry, forestry, aquaculture and fisheries when they affect wetlands, contributing to biodiversity conservation and human livelihoods

Unccd logo3

UNCCD

Expected impact 3.1| Relevant indicator

Sustainable land management and combating desertification/land degradation contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the mitigation of climate change.

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

Unccd logo3

UNCCD

Cms logo blue4c
Unccd logo3
Indicator icon
Indicator icon
Ramsar.logo

Partners

Nslogocolortagtrans
Kew logo 2015 k
Iucn logo en
Zsl logo stacked cmyk
Birdlife aug2013

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2017

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Indicator description

This version of the RLI shows trends in the status of all mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide driven only by the negative impacts of pollution or the positive impacts of measures to control pollution.

Contact point

Graphs / Diagrams

Figure. Red List Index (impacts of pollution) from 1986 to 2016. Dashed lines show the upper and lower confidence interval.

Current storyline

The Red List Index (RLI) shows changes in the aggregate extinction risk of sets of species over time. It is an index of rate at which species move through categories on the IUCN Red List towards or away from extinction. It is calculated from the number of species in each Red List category (ranging from Least Concern to Extinct), and the number changing categories between assessments as a result of genuine improvement or deterioration in status (category changes owing to improved knowledge or revised taxonomy are excluded).

This version of the RLI shows trends in the status of all mammals, birds and amphibians worldwide driven only by the negative impacts of pollution or the positive impacts of measures to control or manage pollution. It is based on data from the IUCN Red List, specifically the number of species in each Red List category of extinction risk, and the number moving categories between assessments owing to genuine improvement or deterioration in status driven by impacts of fisheries. All other changes are excluded, whether from improved knowledge, or genuine impacts of other threats or their control.

The indicator is developed by IUCN and BirdLife International.

Underlying data come from the IUCN Red List, which is developed by IUCN and the Red List Partnership (Arizona State University, BirdLife International, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Conservation International, NatureServe, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Sapienza University of Rome, Texas A&M University, and The Zoological Society of London).

Sampled Red List assessments for plants, which will in due course feed into the RLI, are coordinated by Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Individual logos shown are those for Red List Partners who are also BIP partners.

Data and methodology

Coverage: Global time series (1980 onwards, varying by taxonomic group. Aggregate index from 1993).

Regional/ National time series (time periods variable).

Global baseline (Multiple taxonomic groups have been comprehensively assessed).

Regional/National baseline (National RLIs based on assessments of extinction risk are available for a number of taxa and countries –see http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/publication/red-list-index, while many other countries have completed national red lists but not yet repeated these to produce an RLI: see www.nationalredlist.org. National RLIs for all countries, disaggregated from the global RLI and weighted by the proportion of each species’ distribution occurring within the country, are available in the Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation).

Scale: Aggregated from species level data which may be collected nationally, regionally and/or globally.

Time series available: 1980 –2016.

Next planned update: Updates are released annually.

Possible disaggregations: By region, country.

Methodology: The RLI (impacts of pollution) is based on data from the IUCN Red List, specifically the number of species in each Red List category of extinction risk, and the number moving categories between assessments owing to genuine improvement or deterioration in status driven by impacts pollution or its control. All other changes are excluded, whether from improved knowledge, or genuine impacts of other threats or their control.

National use of indicator

Producing this indicator nationally: National Red List Indices (RLIs) can be calculated either by:

(1) Repeatedly assessing extinction risk at the national scale: examples of this approach have been published for an increasing number of countries and taxa.

(2) Disaggregating the global RLI: national RLIs are produced for all countries and updated each year for the UN SDGs.

These two approaches are described below.

More information about producing national RLIs can be found in Bubb et al. (2009), IUCN Red List Index – Guidance for National and Regional Use available here.

Use at the national level & examples of national use:

(1) RLIs based on repeatedly assessing extinction risk at the national scale.

National indices based on national assessments of extinction risk are available for an increasing number of taxa and countries. Many other countries have completed national red lists but not yet repeated these to produce an RLI. There are at least 515 national Red Lists for various taxonomic groups, covering at least 122 countries, of which Red Lists for 43 countries are available online at http://www.nationalredlist.org. Not all of these use the Guidelines for application of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria at regional and national scales, so results may not be comparable between countries.

Such national RLIs may be more sensitive than globally downscaled RLIs. However, they come with the disadvantage that their trends may be driven by changes in status of species with a trivial proportion of their global population within a given country (Rodrigues et al., 2014). This is because national RLIs do not take into account the fact that different countries have different levels of global responsibility towards the conservation of the species they harbour.

For example, the return of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) to Denmark as a breeding species contributed to this country’s improving national RLI, but was inconsequential to the global RLI, because Denmark holds a tiny fraction of this widespread species’ population. In contrast, an improvement in the conservation status of Albert’s Lyrebird (Menura alberti) in Australia (from Vulnerable to Near Threatened) is globally significant, because this species is a national endemic. Thus, a country can have an improving national index while making a negative contribution to the global RLI, if improvements concern mainly species that are marginally represented within the country and deterioration in species for which the country is highly responsible (Rodrigues et al., 2014).

(2) RLIs based on disaggregating the global RLI.

To overcome the issue that national RLIs based on national red lists may be driven by changes in status of species with a trivial proportion of their global population within a given country, national RLIs (disaggregated from the global RLI for all birds, mammals, amphibians, cycads and corals) weighted by the proportion of each species’ global distribution within the country have been calculated for all countries worldwide, and this is one of the official adopted SDG indicators (UNSD 2016, 2017). The methods for this approach are described at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/metadata/files/Metadata-15-05-01.pdf

The data for each country are available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/database/?indicator=15.5.1 (data).

The graphs for each country are available on the IBAT Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org.

Availability of global data for national use: National RLIs available at https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/indicators/database/?indicator=15.5.1 (data) and on the IBAT country profiles.

Contact person for supporting national use: stuart.butchart@birdlife.org or Thomas.brooks@iucn.org

Red List Index (impacts of pollution): Subsets of the Red List Index can be used to track trends in the impacts of different drivers (utilisation, fisheries, pollution, invasive alien species etc), or for different subsets of species of particular policy relevance (e.g. species used for food or medicine, pollinating species, reef-building corals etc). In principle, national versions of these indicators can be produced following the same approaches above.

For the Red List Index (impacts of pollution), national disaggregations of the global indicator haven’t been produced for all countries because many of these would have too few species driving the trends to produce a reliable indicator. As the total number of species included in the global RLI increases, and therefore the number whose status over time changes owing to the impacts of pollution grows, it would be possible to produce national disaggregations of the global RLI showing impacts of pollution. The alternative approach, based on repeatedly assessing extinction risk at the national scale, can be applied in those countries that have assessed national extinction risk at least twice using comparable methods (preferably following the guidelines for regional application of the IUCN Red List criteria). Including only those category changes resulting from the impacts of pollution or its control/management would allow production of a national Red List Index showing impacts of pollution.


Further resources

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Pressure

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2017

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Nslogocolortagtrans

NatureServe

Kew logo 2015 k

Kew Gardens

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Zsl logo stacked cmyk

Zoological Society of London

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Contact point

Key resources

Websites

IUCN Red List Index