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Protected Area Coverage of Key Biodiversity Areas

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Aze graphic

Alliance for Zero Extinction

Unep wcmc

UNEP-WCMC

Kba

KBA Partnership

Contact point

Indicator description

Protected areas are delineated locations that are recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that contribute to the global persistence of biodiversity, of which 18,000 have been identified on land and at sea. This indicator shows trends over time in the degree to which KBAs are covered by protected areas.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

11

Target 11:

By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

Primary target

11

Target 11:

By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

11

Related SDGs

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 11

GOAL 11 - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

Target 11.4| Relevant indicator

Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage.

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GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

Target 14.5| Relevant indicator

By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information.

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GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Target 15.1| Official indicator

By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.

Target 15.2| Relevant indicator

By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.

Target 15.4| Official indicator

By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.

Target 15.5| Relevant indicator

Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.

Target 15.7| Relevant indicator

Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 11

GOAL 11 - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14

GOAL 14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 11
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 14
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

Other related MEAs and processes

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Target 9| Relevant indicator

International action and cooperation between States for the conservation and effective management of migratory species fully reflects a migratory systems approach, in which all States sharing responsibility for the species concerned engage in such actions in a concerted way.

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Chapter 2| Official indicator

Status and trends; indirect and direct drivers of change

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Progress towards meeting major international objectives related to biodiversity and ecosystem services

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Chapter 3| Official indicator

Status, trends and future dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystems underpinning nature’s benefits to people

Chapter 6| Official indicator

Options for governance, institutional arrangements and private and public decision-making across scales and sectors

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Ramsar

Target 5| Relevant indicator

The ecological character of Ramsar Sites is maintained or restored, through effective planning and integrated management

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UNCCD

Expected impact 3.1| Relevant indicator

Sustainable land management and combating desertification/land degradation contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the mitigation of climate change.

Cms logo blue4c

CMS

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

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UNCCD

Cms logo blue4c
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Indicator icon
Indicator icon
Ramsar.logo

Themes

Bip policy

Policy & conservation actions

View related indicators >
Bip policy
Bip species

Partners

Birdlife aug2013
Iucn logo en
Aze graphic
Unep wcmc
Kba

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Indicator description

Protected areas are delineated locations that are recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are sites that contribute to the global persistence of biodiversity, of which 18,000 have been identified on land and at sea. This indicator shows trends over time in the degree to which KBAs are covered by protected areas.

Contact point

Graphs / Diagrams

Figure 1. Percentage of Key Biodiversity Areas in different ecosystems that are completely covered by protected areas. Source: BirdLife International, IUCN and UNEP-WCMC 2016.

Current storyline

KBAs include over 13,000 Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs; sites of international significance identified by BirdLife International using data on birds), and nearly 600 Alliance for Zero Extinction sites (AZE; sites holding the last remaining population of one or more Critically Endangered or Endangered species), as well as c.5,000 KBAs for a range of vertebrate, invertebrate and plant taxa identified through hotspot ecosystem profiles supported by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. Some sites fall into all three sets.

The percentage of KBAs completely covered by protected areas has increased from 16.4% in 2000 to 18.9% in 2010 and 19.3% in 2016. The percentage KBAs that are completely covered by protected areas increased from 15.07% in 2000 to 19.31% in 2016 for marine sites, 14.9% in 2000 to 21.9% in 2016 for terrestrial sites, 13.75% in 2000 to 16.59% in 2016 for freshwater sites, and 18.14% in 2000 to 20.05% in 2016 for mountain sites.

Overall, terrestrial KBAs have greater coverage by protected areas than freshwater sites, although the patterns vary by region. Since 2000, growth in protected area coverage of KBAs has been similar in terrestrial (16.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (17.2%), but has been much greater in marine ecosystems (25.6%).

Data and methodology

Coverage: Global.

Scale: Based on site-level data for protected areas and KBAs, which can be aggregated to sub-national, national, regional and global scales.

Time series available: 1867-2016.

Next planned update: Updated annually.

Possible disaggregations: By KBA type (IBAs, AZEs etc), sub-national, national, regional, ecosystem type (marine, terrestrial, freshwater, mountains) etc.

Metadata used: The indicator is based on protected area coverage of KBAs. KBAs are identified by the KBA Partnership, comprising BirdLife International, IUCN, Amphibian Survival Alliance, Conservation International, Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund, Global Environment Facility, Global Wildlife Conservation, NatureServe, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Wildlife Conservation Society, World Wildlife Fund.

Methodology: The indicator is calculated from data derived from a spatial overlap between digital polygons for protected areas from the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA, IUCN and UNEP-WCMC, 2016) and digital polygons for Key Biodiversity Areas (from the World Database of Key Biodiversity Areas, including Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites, and other Key Biodiversity Areas; available at www.keybiodiversityareas.org and through the Integrated Biodiversity Assessment Tool at https://www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation/login). Any Key Biodiversity Areas for which >98% of their area is overlapped by one or more protected areas was defined as completely protected (to allow for resolution and digitisation errors in the underlying spatial datasets). The indicator shows temporal trends in the % of Key Biodiversity Areas that are completely protected. This is calculated using data on the year of protected area establishment recorded in the WDPA. As this is unknown for c.14% of terrestrial protected areas, we randomly assigned a year from another protected area within the same country, or for countries with less than five protected areas with known year of establishment, from all terrestrial PAs, and then repeated this procedure 1,000 times, and plotted the median (Butchart et al. 2012, 2015).

Future developments of the indicator will include (a) expansion of the taxonomic coverage of KBAs through application of the ‘Global KBA Standard’ (IUCN 2016) to a wide variety of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants; and (b) improvements in the data on protected areas including by increasing 1) the proportion of sites with documented dates of designation and 2) the proportion of sites with digitised boundary polygons (rather than coordinates).

National use of indicator

National versions of the indicator are available for all countries on the Country Profiles at https://www.ibat-alliance.org/ibat-conservation/login.

Further resources

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Freely available

Partners

Birdlife aug2013

BirdLife International

Iucn logo en

IUCN

Aze graphic

Alliance for Zero Extinction

Unep wcmc

UNEP-WCMC

Kba

KBA Partnership

Contact point