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Official development assistance for biodiversity

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2018

Coverage

Global

Availability

Data freely available

Partners

Oecd

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Contact point

Nicolina Lamhauge: Nicolina.Lamhauge@oecd.org

Giorgio Gualberti: Giorgio.Gualberti@oecd.org


Indicator description

The OECD Official Development Assistance Committee (DAC) monitors development finance targeting the objectives of the Rio Conventions on climate change, biodiversity and desertification. Data are reported by members of the OECD DAC to the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) using the so-called Rio markers. Reporting on biodiversity became mandatory in 2006. For each activity reported, DAC members indicate whether it targets the objectives of the Rio Conventions as a ‘principal’ or ‘significant’ objective. Activities marked ‘principal’ would not have been funded but for that policy objective; activities marked ‘significant’ have other prime objectives but have been formulated or adjusted to help meet the policy objective. Through this scoring system the markers provide an indication of the degree of mainstreaming of biodiversity considerations into development co-operation.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

20

Target 20:

By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.

Primary target

20

Target 20:

By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.

20

Related SDGs

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GOAL 10 - Reduce inequality within and among countries.

Target 10.b| Relevant indicator

Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes.

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GOAL 11 - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

Target 11.4| Relevant indicator

Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage.

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GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Target 15.1| Relevant indicator

By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.

Target 15.2| Relevant indicator

By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.

Target 15.3| Relevant indicator

By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.

Target 15.4| Relevant indicator

By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development.

Target 15.5| Relevant indicator

Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.

Target 15.6| Relevant indicator

Ensure fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources.

Target 15.8| Relevant indicator

By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species.

Target 15.9| Relevant indicator

By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts.

Target 15.a| Official indicator

Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems.

Target 15.b| Official indicator

Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation.

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GOAL 10 - Reduce inequality within and among countries.

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GOAL 11 - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

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GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

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Other related MEAs and processes

Cites high resolution

CITES

Target 2.2| Relevant indicator

Sufficient resources are secured at the national and international levels to ensure compliance with and implementation and enforcement of the Convention.

Target 2.3| Relevant indicator

Sufficient resources are secured at the national and international levels to implement capacity-building programmes.

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CMS

Target 16| Relevant indicator

The mobilization of adequate resources from all sources to effectively implement the Strategic Plan for Migratory Species has increased substantially.

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Ramsar

Target 17| Relevant indicator

Wetlands conservation and wise use are mainstreamed through communication, capacity development, education, participation and awareness.

Target 18| Relevant indicator

International cooperation is strengthened at all levels.

Target 19| Relevant indicator

Capacity building for implementation of the Convention and the fourth Ramsar Strategic Plan 2016 – 2024 is enhanced.

Cites high resolution

CITES

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CMS

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Ramsar

Cites high resolution
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Themes

Bip policy

Policy & conservation actions

View related indicators >
Bip policy

Partners

Oecd

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2018

Coverage

Global

Availability

Data freely available

Indicator description

The OECD Official Development Assistance Committee (DAC) monitors development finance targeting the objectives of the Rio Conventions on climate change, biodiversity and desertification. Data are reported by members of the OECD DAC to the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) using the so-called Rio markers. Reporting on biodiversity became mandatory in 2006. For each activity reported, DAC members indicate whether it targets the objectives of the Rio Conventions as a ‘principal’ or ‘significant’ objective. Activities marked ‘principal’ would not have been funded but for that policy objective; activities marked ‘significant’ have other prime objectives but have been formulated or adjusted to help meet the policy objective. Through this scoring system the markers provide an indication of the degree of mainstreaming of biodiversity considerations into development co-operation.

Contact point

Nicolina Lamhauge: Nicolina.Lamhauge@oecd.org

Giorgio Gualberti: Giorgio.Gualberti@oecd.org


Graphs / Diagrams

Figure 1: Bilateral biodiversity-related ODA, 2009-16


Further graphs and data are available on the OECD website here.

Current storyline

Biodiversity-related ODA reached USD 8.3 billion per year in 2015-16, representing 6% of total bilateral ODA commitments.

Figure 2: Bilateral biodiversity-related ODA, 2009-16

A large number of countries received biodiversity-related ODA; a few received very large commitments.

Figure 3: Top recipients of bilateral biodiversity-related ODA

Africa accounted for the highest share (35%) of biodiversity-related ODA in 2015-16, grants contributing 78%.

Figure 4: Bilateral biodiversity-related ODA by region and instrument

Note: 14% of biodiversity-related ODA falls into an ‘unallocated’ category that is not earmarked to a country or region.

Biodiversity-related ODA was evenly distributed across income groups in 2015-16.

Figure 5: Bilateral biodiversity-related ODA by income group and instrument


Data and methodology

Coverage: Global time series (2002 onwards, reporting mandatory across OECD DAC members from 2006).

Scale: Global.

Time series available: 2002-2016

Possible disaggregations: By country, by sector, financial instrument

Metadata used: OECD CRS data is collected through an institutionalised structure that maintains and develops underlying standards (e.g. definitions and classifications), creates a common understanding of their application, and undergoes rigorous quality control, making it a high quality, standardised data source. Activity-level data is collected and can be aggregated by donor country (the 30 DAC members) and by recipient country, making it appropriate for producing national level indicators. There are over 50 fields of descriptive information, including on sectors and sub-sectors

Methodology: The data can be used to determine the scale and nature of bilateral official development assistance that includes a focus on biodiversity considerations, as reported by members of OECD’s Development Assistance Committee.

The activity-level data captured in the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) can e.g. be filtered by:

  • Focus (e.g. biodiversity as a principal or significant objective)
  • Recipient (e.g. country, region or income groups)
  • Sectors (i.e. forestry, agriculture, etc)
  • Type of support provided (e.g. grants or loans)

Further, the data can also be disaggregated to differentiate between ODA targeting biodiversity concerns as a principal or significant objective, and to look at the break down of ODA activities between sectors (i.e. forestry, agriculture, etc).The ODA indicator data can also be disaggregated into biodiversity-related ODA committed as grants or as loans.

National use of indicator

Producing this indicator nationally: The OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) has monitored development finance in support of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) since 1998. Data is reported by DAC members to the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) using the ‘Rio markers’ that collect information on development finance in support of the UN Conventions on climate change (UNFCCC) and desertification (UNCCD).

For each activity reported to the CRS, DAC members indicate whether the activity has been screened toward the biodiversity marker and, if so, whether it targets the objectives of the CBD as a ‘principal’ or ‘significant’ objective. Activities scored ‘principal’ would not have been funded if not for that policy objective; activities scored ‘significant’ have other prime objectives but have been formulated or adjusted to help meet the policy objective. When reporting to the CRS, DAC members specify the recipient of their biodiversity-related support as either individual partner countries, regional or global activities.

The biodiversity marker is qualitative rather than quantitative. It is primarily intended to provide an indication of the level of mainstreaming of biodiversity considerations into DAC members’ development co-operation portfolios. The data also provides information on biodiversity-related commitments made by DAC members to partner countries:

Use at the national level: The data on biodiversity-related development finance commitments can be filtered by individual donors or by partner countries to which the commitments have been made.

  • The data visualisation portal presents an overview
  • Detailed activity-level data is also available here (select – aid activities targeting global environmental objectives)
  • The full database can be downloaded here

The data can serve as a basis when examining the biodiversity-related commitments made by members of the DAC to a given country. Similarly, the data also provides an overview of biodiversity commitments made by individual providers.

The data can also be used to produce regional analyses, for example this analysis by the CBD. Further, the latest OECD analysis of the biodiversity data includes a focus on the allocation of bilateral biodiversity-related development finance to different regions and income groups. This analysis could be further elaborated to better understand the nature of these commitments.

The OECD DAC Rio Markers for Climate Handbook includes detailed guidance on how to apply the Rio markers for climate change. This guidance is also applicable to the marker for biodiversity. The OECD DAC Secretariat also routinely produces statistical flyers on trends in biodiversity-related ODA. See the following website for these resources: http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/biodiversity.htm .

Examples of national use: CBD analysis on financial reporting of biodiversity finance found that 16 countries included information provided by the Rio marker for biodiversity in their national assessments, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Lebanon, and Myanmar.

In 2016, the OECD analysed the nature of biodiversity-related development finance commitments to Ethiopia, Madagascar, Peru and Viet Nam. In 2018, the OECD analysed the mainstreaming of biodiversity for development in Peru.

Availability of global data for national use: Freely available for non-commercial use.

To access the data, follow this link and click on the 'Export' drop down list where you can select which file option you would prefer to download the data in.

Contact person for supporting national use: Nicolina Lamhauge: Nicolina.Lamhauge@oecd.org or Giorgio Gualberti: Giorgio.Gualberti@oecd.org

Further resources

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2018

Coverage

Global

Availability

Data freely available

Partners

Oecd

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Contact point

Nicolina Lamhauge: Nicolina.Lamhauge@oecd.org

Giorgio Gualberti: Giorgio.Gualberti@oecd.org