Home About Indicator Development Partners Resources Dashboard

Area of forest under sustainable management: total FSC and PEFC forest management certification

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Data freely available

Partners

Fsc logo   cmyk %283%29

Forest Stewardship Council

Pefc

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)

Contact point

Marion Karmann: m.karmann@fsc.org

Thorsten Andt: Thorsten.Arndt@pefc.org

Indicator description

The “forest certification” indicator measures the area certified as responsibly managed forests, including natural or semi-natural forests that are used to produce timber and non-timber forest products, and forest plantations. An increase in the area of PEFC and FSC certified forest represents an increase in the area for which evidence of sustainable forest management is available in terms of forest managed responsibly with respect to biodiversity conservation, including the protection of critical ecosystems, in addition to promoting the social, economic, cultural and ethical dimensions of sustainable forest management.

Related Aichi Targets

Primary target

7

Target 7:

By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.

Primary target

7

Target 7:

By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.

7

Related SDGs

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 02

GOAL 2 - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

Target 2.5| Relevant indicator

By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and ensure access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 06

GOAL 6 - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

Target 6.6| Relevant indicator

By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 08

GOAL 8 - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Target 8.4| Relevant indicator

Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead

Target 8.5| Relevant indicator

By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

Target 8.7| Relevant indicator

Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms

Target 8.8| Relevant indicator

Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12

GOAL 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Target 12.2| Relevant indicator

By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.

Target 12.5| Relevant indicator

By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.

Target 12.6| Relevant indicator

Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle.

Target 12.7| Relevant indicator

Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Target 15.1| Relevant indicator

By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.

Target 15.2| Relevant indicator

By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.

Target 15.5| Relevant indicator

Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.

Target 15.7| Relevant indicator

Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products.

Target 15.8| Relevant indicator

By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 16

GOAL 16 - Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

Target 16.3| Relevant indicator

Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all.

Target 16.5| Relevant indicator

Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms.

Target 16.7| Relevant indicator

Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 02

GOAL 2 - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 06

GOAL 6 - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 08

GOAL 8 - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12

GOAL 12 - Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15

GOAL 15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 16

GOAL 16 - Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

E sdg goals icons individual rgb 08
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 06
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 02
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 12
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 15
E sdg goals icons individual rgb 16

Other related MEAs and processes

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Chapter 2| Official indicator

Status and trends; indirect and direct drivers of change

Chapter 6| Official indicator

Opportunities and challenges for decision makers

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Chapter 4| Official indicator

Direct and indirect drivers of change in the context of different perspectives of quality of life

Chapter 6| Official indicator

Options for governance, institutional arrangements and private and public decision-making across scales and sectors

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

Target 11| Relevant indicator

Wetland functions, services and benefits are widely demonstrated, documented and disseminated.

Target 13| Relevant indicator

Enhanced sustainability of key sectors such as water, energy, mining, agriculture, tourism, urban development, infrastructure, industry, forestry, aquaculture and fisheries when they affect wetlands, contributing to biodiversity conservation and human livelihoods

Unccd logo3

UNCCD

Expected impact 3.1| Relevant indicator

Sustainable land management and combating desertification/land degradation contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the mitigation of climate change.

Indicator icon

IPBES Global Assessment Chapters

Indicator icon

IPBES Regional Assessment Chapters

Ramsar.logo

Ramsar

Unccd logo3

UNCCD

Indicator icon
Unccd logo3
Indicator icon
Ramsar.logo

Themes

Bip sustainable

Sustainable use of natural resources and land

View related indicators >
Bip terrestrial

Terrestrial habitats

View related indicators >
Bip terrestrial
Bip sustainable

Partners

Fsc logo   cmyk %283%29
Pefc

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Data freely available

Indicator description

The “forest certification” indicator measures the area certified as responsibly managed forests, including natural or semi-natural forests that are used to produce timber and non-timber forest products, and forest plantations. An increase in the area of PEFC and FSC certified forest represents an increase in the area for which evidence of sustainable forest management is available in terms of forest managed responsibly with respect to biodiversity conservation, including the protection of critical ecosystems, in addition to promoting the social, economic, cultural and ethical dimensions of sustainable forest management.

Contact point

Marion Karmann: m.karmann@fsc.org

Thorsten Andt: Thorsten.Arndt@pefc.org

Graphs / Diagrams

Current storyline

This indicator measures the area of responsibly managed forests, including natural or semi-natural forests that are used to produce timber and non-timber forest products, and forest plantations.

An increase in the area of PEFC and FSC certified forest represents an increase in the area of forest managed for which evidence of responsible forest management is available with respect to biodiversity conservation. This including the identification and preservation of critical ecosystems (establishment of set aside areas, protection of RTE species and their habitats, exclusion of forest conservation to plantations or non-forest land uses), in addition to promoting the social, economic, cultural and ethical dimensions of sustainable forest management.

Increase of certified forest management results in reduced global pressures on forest biodiversity, which may subsequently reduce biodiversity loss.

However, any corresponding benefit to biodiversity through responsible management of PEFC and FSC certified forests would be counteracted at global scale by ongoing degradation and deforestation of natural forest areas.

UNEP’s Green Economy Project (2011) notes that ‘while certification schemes provide an independent assessment of adherence to the standards, and statistics on them provide an indication of the extent of best practice, although lack of certification does not necessarily imply bad practice.’

The “Area of forest under sustainable management: certification” indicator comprises of data from two international forest certification systems: The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC). PEFC accounts for about 60% of the total global area of certified forest, while the FSC covers about 40%.

There is some overlap between the certification schemes, with the forest area certified to both PEFC and FSC estimated, by mid 2017, to be around 71.1 million hectares.The total area of FSC and PEFC certified forest together has increased from 52 million hectares in 2000 to 431.4 million hectares in mid-2017, with double certification in 31 countries.

Since this time the annual growth rate in certified area has been relatively constant.

In November 2017 nearly two-thirds of the FSC 195 million hectares certified forests is within natural forests (65%), more than a quarter (27%) has been issued for semi-natural and mixed (plantation and natural) forests and less than a tenth for plantations (8%).

Data and methodology

Coverage: Global.

Scale: Aggregated from national level data.

Time series available: 1995-2017.

Possible disaggregations: Regional level, national level.

Methodology: Third party certification bodies report on area managed as compliant with the respective certification standards.

National use of indicator

Producing this indicator nationally: The “forest certification” indicator measures the area certified as responsibly managed forests. Third party certification bodies report annually about the forest operations managed as compliant with the respective certification standards. The certification bodies enter up to date information as well as public summary reports for all issued certificates, allowing to identify relevant forest sites and audit results in the FSC public global database. The FSC data for this indicator originates from this database which can also be filtered by country or region. As a result, this indicator can be produced at national and regional levels. In addition FSC provides monthly reports with aggregated data about the areas certified by country.

For PEFC, the data is collated by PEFC-endorsed national forest certification systems based on data originating from third party certification bodies. Figures are updated on a quarterly basis and available at. Detailed information on a certificate-by-certificate basis is available in the PEFC Find Certified database, available here.

Use at the national level: National subsets of global FSC data can be retrieved from https://info.fsc.org/ (for individual certificates) and from FSC Facts & Figures (for already per country aggregated data) or in cooperation with the FSC contact person. National subsets of global PEFC data can be retrieved here (for individual certificates) and from PEFC Facts & Figures (for already per country aggregated data) or in cooperation with the FSC contact person.

The indicator methodology can be applied with in-country data to develop the national indicator. However, if both FSC and PEFC are considered, one needs to take into account the phenomenon of “double certification": of the 83 countries where FSC certification is currently taking place, both schemes FSC and PEFC are active in 31 of them, with forest management units that carry both certificates. In early 2017, FSC and PEFC provided, for the first time, information about the double certified areas per country, which needs to be taken into account when calculating the total certified area.

FSC and PEFC plan to update this annually, with 30th June of each year as the cut-off date.

Because forest management, and certification of forest management are complex processes, the BIP indicator "forest certification" cannot easily be reproduced, if this certification is not conducted by one of the global schemes FSC or PEFC. Both FSC and PEFC each have strict requirements on how to initiate multi-stakeholders process and develop, test and endorse their set of indicators (the certification standards) for a country. To ensure professional evaluation of the quality of forest management, third party certification bodies conduct the evaluations with trained expert teams - i.e. the indicator "forest certification" cannot be arbitrarily applied without such accreditation processes.

Examples of national use: PEFC and FSC both provide this indicator at national level on their respective websites.

Availability of global data for national use: There are two global forest management certification schemes contributing to the indicator, FSC and PEFC. For FSC individual certificates see https://info.fsc.org/ and for data already aggregated on country levels: follow this link FSC Facts & Figures and download the latest report.

For PEFC individual certificates please see https://pefc.org/find-certified/certified-certificates and for data already aggregated on country levels, follow this link: PEFC Facts & Figures and scroll down to download the latest PEFC Global statistics.

Contact person for supporting national use of FSC data: m.karmann@fsc.org

Contact person for supporting national use of PEFC data: t.arndt@pefc.org

Further resources

No further resources are available

Key indicator facts

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Indicator type

Response

Applicable for national use

Yes (find out more)

Indicator classification

Operational and included in the CBD's list of indicators

Last update

2016

Coverage

Global

Availability

Data freely available

Partners

Fsc logo   cmyk %283%29

Forest Stewardship Council

Pefc

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)

Contact point

Marion Karmann: m.karmann@fsc.org

Thorsten Andt: Thorsten.Arndt@pefc.org