Translate:
Shared Document Area
Friday, November 21, 2014
  Go to BIP National Web Site  

Indicator Facts

CBD Strategic Goal: B. Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use.

Aichi Biodiversity Target: Target 7. By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity. 

CBD AHTEG proposed Headline Indicator: Trends in integration of biodiversity, ecosystem services and benefits sharing into planning, policy formation and implementation and incentives; Areas under sustainable management

Key Indicator Partners:

           

Associate Partner:

Type of indicator: Response

Data Available: Global times series, 1995 onwards

Development Status: Ready for global use

Reason

Policy questions that the indicator addresses: Forests are highly diverse ecosystems; covering 30% of the total land area on earth, they provide habitats for around two-thirds of all species. As well as being important for biodiversity, forests also serve a wide range of ecosystem functions essential to human life. The number of people living in or near forests is estimated at around 750 million (see FAO 2014), and forest resources are used for building materials, food and medicines. Forests also protect other landscapes and habitats against nutrient loss, erosion and landslides through the binding action or roots. The loss of forests would have significant impacts on biodiversity and also humankind.

Indicator relationship to main Aichi Biodiversity Target: Target 7: By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.

The forest certification indicator measures the area of responsibly managed forests, including natural or semi-natural forests that are used to produce timber and non-timber forest products, and forest plantations. An increase in the area of PEFC and FSC certified forest represents an increase in the area for which evidence of sustainable forest management is available in terms of forest managed responsibly with respect to biodiversity conservation, including the protection of critical ecosystems, in addition to promoting the social and economic, cultural and ethical dimensions of sustainable forest management.

Data Information

Data available: Global time series since 1995

Global indicator not aggregated.

Indicator can be disaggregated at the: Regional and National level

Status

The indicator shows a positive response in regard to protecting biodiversity through the sustainable management of forests. The area of certified forest has increased from 3.24 million hectares in 1995 to 180.44 million hectares as of July 2013. The annual growth rate is relatively constant since 2005, only once falling below 10 million hectares.

After a first peak in 1999 of >50%, the share of boreal forest area dropped to 30% in 2003, but since then has increased and stabilised at the 50% level. The share of (sub)tropical forest area has been rather stable since 2003, fluctuating between 11% and 15% .

Nearly two thirds of the certified forest area is within natural forests (65%), more than a quarter (28%) has been issued for semi-natural and mixed (plantation and natural) forests and less than a tenth for plantations (8%).

Last update: August 2013

Scale

Level at which indicator is currently used: Global

Level at which indicator could be used: Regional and national

Indicator presentation

The area of FSC and PEFC certified forest has increased from 53 million hectares in 2000 to 407 million hectares in 2012.

Figure 1: Total area of forestry under FSC and PEFC certification in boreal, temperate and tropical regions (ha).

Source: FSC, 2013, PEFC, 2013.

How to Interpret the Indicator

This indicator measures the area of responsibly managed forests, including natural or semi-natural forests that are used to produce timber and non-timber forest products, and forest plantations.

An increase in the area of PEFC and FSC certified forest represents an increase in the area of forest managed responsibly with respect to biodiversity conservation, such as establishment of set-aside areas, protection of rare, threatened and endangered species and their habitats, identification and preservation of critical ecosystem habitats, as well as exclusion of forest conversion to plantations or non-forest land uses. This increase results in reduced global pressures on forest biodiversity, which may subsequently reduce biodiversity loss. However, any corresponding benefit to biodiversity through the responsible management of PEFC and FSC certified forests would be counteracted at global scale by ongoing degradation and deforestation of natural forest areas.

UNEP’s Green Economy Report (2011) notes that “while certification schemes provide an independent assessment of adherence to the standards and statistics on them provide an indication of the extent of best practice, although lack of certification does not necessarily imply bad practice.”

Current Storyline

The Area of forest under sustainable management: certification indicator comprises data from two international forest certification systems: the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC). The area of FSC and PEFC certified forest has increased from 53 million hectares in 2000 to 407 million hectares in 2012. Between 2004 and 2005 there was a sharp increase in the areas of forest managed due to the endorsement of the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) by PEFC, which meant that from that point on all area certified to SFI in North America were counted as PEFC-certified. Since this time the annual growth rate in certified area has been relatively constant.

Nearly two-thirds of the FSC certified forest area is within natural forests (64%), more than a quarter (27%) has been issued for semi-natural and mixed (plantation and natural) forests and less than a tenth for plantations (8.5%).

PEFC accounts for about two-thirds of the total global area of certified forest, while the FSC covers about one-third. There is some overlap between the certification schemes, with the area of double certification increasing annually.

National Use

The data for this indicator originates from the global FSC Certificate Database which can also be filtered by country or region. As a result this indicator can be produced at national and regional levels. The FSC Certificate Database contains up-to-date information as well as public summary reports for all issued certificates, allowing you to identify relevant forest sites and audit results. It is available online at: info.fsc.org.
For more information about producing regional and national forest certification indicators contact the FSC International Center at: ecosystem.services@fsc.org

Future Development

Data from PEFC and FSC site reports will continue to be incorporated into the database to ensure the indicator is as up to date as possible. Maps of the locations of the sites will also be generated, so that the geographical distribution of the FSC sites can be compared.

Indicator Publications

The recent trend and a wide array of specific statistics can be obtained from the FSC website at: http://www.fsc.org/facts-figures.19.htm and the PEFC at http://pefc.org/about-pefc/who-we-are/facts-a-figures

Indicator links

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

For further information on the Area of forest under sustainable management: certification indicator visit http://www.bipindicators.net/forestcertification



Useful links
PEFC

PEFC International website: www.pefc.org

PEFC Facts and Figures: www.pefc.org/about-pefc/who-we-are/facts-a-figures

PEFC Registration System: treee.es/find-certified

FSC

FSC International website: http://www.fsc.org

FSC Facts and Figures: http://www.fsc.org/facts-figures.19.htm

FSC global database of issued certificates: http://info.fsc.org

FSC Impacts and Research: https://ic.fsc.org/research.346.htm

FAO Global Forest Resources Assessments (FRA): http://www.fsc.org/research.346.htm



Photo credits:
Forest from above ©Onno Makor; Timber ©openphoto.net; Timber and logging machine ©Ian Junor

Privacy Statement  |  Terms Of Use|  FAQ|  Contact US
Copyright 2008-2013 UNEP-WCMC   Website:  |  Register  | Login